Czech, 49, 2004: 389-399 Review Article Kaolin, bentonite, and zeolites as feed supplements for animals: health advantages and risks M. T������, L. M������, L. D������, I. P����� Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: Feeding kaolin as a supplement to pigs for prevention of diarrheal diseases has been introduced into some farms in the Czech Republic.
Another risk factor is a potential contamination of originally sterile kaolin with conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria from surface water, dust, soil, and other constituents of the environment in the mines during kaolin extraction, processing and storage. Mining of kaolin deposits in southern Moravia, Czech Republic, has prompted some Czech farmers to experiment with kaolin. As kaolin feeding showed to be effective in some farms, the abundance and efficacy of kaolin may provide a suitable material to protect livestock from diarrheal diseases. Kaolin deposits in the Czech Republic Kaolin is formed under acidic conditions through weathering or hydrothermal changes of feldspars, and – to a lower extent – also other aluminosilicates. Kaolin deposits in the area of Karlovy Vary are primary, i.e.
kaolin remained in the place of its formation. A�er kaolin washing, classiﬁcation and separation steps according to the particle size, kaolin sedimentation, addition of colloid agent, and kaolin drying in wire baskets, the product was ﬁnished and could be dispatched to customers. Kaolin structure Kaolin is a plastic raw material, particularly consisting of the clay mineral kaolinite. Decontaminating properties of kaolin Due to its adsorbent capability and lack of primary toxicity, kaolin is considered a simple and eﬀective means to prevent or ameliorate the adverse eﬀects exerted by many toxic agents, not only those from the environment, but also those from the living organisms. Toxicological impact of kaolin A�er oral or intradermal administration of kaolin, no toxic eﬀects were observed in the organisms.
The risk of kaolin contamination with dioxins Contamination of kaolin with dioxins represents a potential risk. The risk of kaolin contamination with mycobacteria Several risk factors which may cause kaolin contamination, particularly with conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria, during its production must be considered.
Pork and Organ Meat Health Benefits
Meat contains the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin; and a few minerals, such as calcium, potassium, and iron. A recent 10-year study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, found that people red meat a week are more likely to develop colon cancer than people who don’t. Pork has a higher proportion of unsaturated fats than other meats; its cholesterol content is also high: 80mg in a 3-ounce pork chop and 100mg in 3 ounces of spare ribs. Many of us overlooked at the importance of organ meats in our diet. Compared to regular cuts of muscle meat, organ meats are more densely packed with just about every nutrient, including heavy doses of B vitamins such as: B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin B12.
Organ meats are also loaded with minerals like phosphorus, iron, copper, magnesium and iodine, and provide the important fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Brains are higher in cholesterol than any other food; a 4-ounce serving of beef brains has more than 2,000 mg, and pork brains contain an even larger amount. On the plus side, they are an excellent source of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 helps alleviate fatigue, increase mental ability, beneficial in nerve’s health, and depression, as well as helps prevent anemia. A 4-ounce serving of beef liver provides more than 10 times the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A.
Good source of vitamin B12. Liver contains 35 to 50 times the RDA of vitamin B12. Iron and zinc. Heart provides high-quality protein and less fat and cholesterol than other organ meats. Heart is high in vitamin B12, iron, and potassium; in addition, also contains Selenium, Phosphorus & Zinc, along with essential amino acids that help build muscle, store energy and boost stamina and endurance.
Tongue contains useful amounts of most of the B vitamins, especially B12. Tripe provides high-quality protein, a fair amount of potassium, and small amounts of minerals. Cooking Tip: Heart muscle meat is a bit tougher than other meats, but marinating the meat in an acidic-based marinade helps to tenderize it and add delicious flavor as well. Excessive liver consumption can cause a buildup of vitamin A. Add liver in your regular diet at least once a week if possible for maximum benefit of its high levels of nutrients.
If you are showing your pig in a breeding gilt show, you will likely be required to show the registration papers for the animal that come from the breed association. If you are able to wait until the pig is closer to 70 pounds before purchasing it, you will have a better chance of predicting how the animal will turn out. Selecting a good animal It is extremely helpful to know and understand the rules of the show in which your pig will be exhibited before you purchase your animal. At a pig sale you can compare pigs from different breeders and save time driving from farm to farm comparing animals. Rump Ham Side Belly or underline Sheath Hock Rear flank Foot or toe Stifle Dew claw Tail As with other animals, pigs don’t begin to fatten much until the end of their growing period, so the feeder pigs from which you will select your project animal will not and should not have much noticeable fat.
The pigs should be weighed at the same time of day and on the same day of the week, since a pig’s weight will change throughout the day, depending on the amount of feed or water it has had. Weighing at the same time of day keeps you from recording large variations in weight that may be due only to water intake. With show pigs you try to have the pig reach the point when it looks its very best on the day of the show. 7 If pigs are shown several times during a season, they should be isolated after each return to the farm so that other swine on the farm won’t be exposed to the many disease-causing organisms animals can pick up at a show or exhibition. If you purchase show pigs directly from several farms, it is best to keep the pigs from each farm isolated in separate pens and away from fenceline contact with other pigs for 60 days. If show pigs are bought at a sale, or if pigs from more than one source are mixed while being transported, they may be exposed to disease.
If the judge really likes the pig, he or she will point to the pig and ask that it be penned. Once the judge pens the pigs he or she likes best, the other pigs will be excused from the show ring and the penned pigs released into the show ring for a more detailed evaluation.