Note the age, morbidity and mortality, distribution of lesions, appearance and progression of lesions, and any other clinical signs that exist concurrently. Comparing results from bacteriologic cultures collected from several different lesions or sites may yield useful information regarding the bacterial flora that may be involvedin the disease process. With widespread lesions, it may be beneficial to include large areas of skin from a necropsy for laboratory evaluation. In the acute form, affected pigs are covered by an odoriferous, moist, greasy exudate comprised of sebum and bacteria, In the chronic notes are not peer-reviewed Swine Health and Production – November and December, 1995 form, lesions consist of scabby patches of skin, which are most prominent over the head and shoulders. Porcine cutaneous spirochetosis Porcine cutaneous spirochetes may be occasionally encountered in a group of pigs but frequently go undiagnosed because lesions resemble those caused by a variety of other bacteria, including Fusobacterium necrophorum and Actinomyces pyogenes.
Vesicular stomatitis is not a foreign animal disease but clinical signs and gross lesions are indistinguishable from other exotic vesicular diseases. Vesicular diseases of swine include foot ing parvovirus in the lesions using fluorescent antibody microscopy or virus isolation. Similar lesions have been described in swine acutely infected with Staphylococcus hyicus, suggesting that the condition may occur as a result of concurrent viral and bacterial infections. Diagnosis is based on typical gross lesions and demonstrating the organisms in skin scrapings or histological sections. Samples for diagnostic evaluation should include deep skin scrapings and hairs plucked from the edges of lesions.
Cargill CF, Dobson Skin lesions associated with pityriasis rosea may be clinically in- Effects on production. HJ. Lesions of porcine necrotic ear Diseases.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
PEDv Confirmed in Georgia The Georgia Department of Agriculture has reported a known case of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea is a viral disease of swine that is associated with fever, severe diarrhea and vomiting. PED mimics a common pig disease called Transmissible Gastroenteritis, which is also a Coronavirus, only lab tests can tell the difference. PED is not a zoonotic disease, does not affect any other domestic species and is not a food safety concern. The disease is most severe in young piglets, but can affect pigs of any age.
Pregnant sows often abort due to fever; however, older pigs usually recover from the disease within 7-10 days. There is no specific treatment; however, supportive therapy is useful in the treatment of older animals and sows that have recovered from the disease pass immunity to their offspring. The disease is very common in China, Korea and other Asian countries. It is currently unknown how the virus entered the US. There is some concern that feed products such as porcine plasma products sprayed on pellets in certain rations has been responsible for introduction or spread of the disease.
PED is not a listed disease of the World Organization for Animal Health; is not considered a Foreign Animal Disease in the United States; and there are currently no international or interstate trade restrictions pertaining to PED in U.S. swine. The disease has spread to 28 states across the United States and to Canada causing millions of dollars of damage due to losses from abortions, mortality and poor feed conversion. In response to the significant impact porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus are having on U.S. pork producers, the United States Department of Agriculture today announced $26.2 million in funding to combat these diseases.
African swine fever virus can spread very rapidly in pig populations by direct or indirect contact. In 2007, Africa swine fever was introduced into the Caucasus region of Eurasia, where it has spread widely among wild boar and domesticated pigs. The virus introduced into the Caucasus belongs to genotype II, while viruses endemic in Sardinia belong to genotype I. ASFV isolates differ greatly in virulence, from highly pathogenic viruses that kill most pigs to strains that result only in seroconversion. Species Affected African swine fever affects members of the pig family.
Concentrations of ASFV appear to be much lower in adult warthogs, compared to pigs, and adult warthogs might not transmit the virus by direct contact. Massive environmental contamination may result if blood is shed during necropsies or pig fights, or if a pig develops bloody diarrhea. Several studies have reported finding ASFV in the tissues of domesticated pigs for as long as 3 to 6 months, and virus shedding and transmission for at least 70 days after experimental inoculation. A similar cycle is thought to exist between domesticated pigs and the Ornithodoros moubata complex ticks that colonize their pig pens in Africa. Under experimental conditions, these flies could transmit ASFV 24 hours after feeding on infected pigs.
Cell types used for virus isolation include pig leukocyte or bone marrow cultures, porcine alveolar macrophages and blood monocyte cultures. Pigs with acute disease often die before developing antibodies; however, antibodies to ASFV persist for long periods in animals that survive. Current regulations in the EU allow pig farms to be restocked as soon as 40 days after cleaning and disinfection, if an African swine fever outbreak occurs in the absence of vectors; however, the minimum quarantine is 6 years if vectors are thought to be involved in transmission.