National Animal Disease Information Service –
Erysipelas is a long recognised bacterial disease of pigs and represents one of the most common clinical problems encountered in pigs kept in small populations such as smallholdings, hobby farms and specialist pedigree small herds. The pigs’ particular sensitivity to the disease. The causative organism of Erysipelas in pigs is the ubiquitous bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, formally known as Erysipelas insidiosa of which there are many serotypes which may account in part for the variations in presentation of disease. Arthritis – a complicated form of the disease which can be very difficult to control. The most significant factor clinically is that because the arthritis results from an immune medicated condition, it is not necessarily the case that the acute form of the disease will be seen prior to it.
In adult breeding animals, all of these forms of the disease can be seen although the arthritic form is rare in sows other than those at the beginning of their breeding life. ‘Diamonds’ – the classic acute form of the disease. This can be presented either as waves of return to service – possibly with preceding clinical disease such as ‘diamonds’ – or as abortion at any stage of pregnancy often without preceding signs in affected animals or pen mates. In outbreaks of peracute, acute and endocarditic forms of the disease it is appropriate to treat the entire population metaphyllacticly using penicillin based antibiotics in feed or water. Considering the high risk of Erysipelas to pigs, particularly in straw based, and back yard outdoor systems, it is an essential component of any health programme to vaccinate all breeding stock to prevent the disease. Erysipelas is a common infectious disease affecting all ages of pigs and is a particular problem in small populations that are not protected by vaccination.
Whilst serious and potentially fatal, the acute form of the disease responds well to appropriate antibiotic treatment and the disease can be easily and cheaply prevented by applying a routine vaccination regime.
Animals Used in Experiments and Testing
PROBLEMS WITH ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION. Using animals for medical experimentation, product testing, and education is a controversial subject that often leads to heated debate. Today, tens of millions of animals are used each year in federally and privately funded experiments. An estimated 90 percent of all animals used in research are rats and mice, though many other species are also used, including guinea pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, nonhuman primates, and farm animals. The majority of state animal cruelty laws in the U.S.
specifically exclude animals used in experiments. The Animal Welfare Act is the only federal law to require basic standards of care, housing, and treatment of laboratory animals. The AWA excludes birds, mice, and rats bred for use in research, who represent approximately 95 percent of animals used in experiments. There is another compelling reason to stop animal experimentation: the use of animals as models for humans in biomedical research is hopelessly flawed and has often worked to the detriment of human health. Animals in EducationMillions of animals are dissected or killed each year in schools and universities.
ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION. The development of non-animal alternatives in research and testing has grown dramatically in the past 20 years and is widely recognized as a legitimate and important area of basic and applied scientific investigation. Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal TestingWorking with scientists to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress. SHOP WITH COMPASSION. You can use your power as an informed consumer to help end the use of animals in product testing.
Determining whether a product is tested on animals is easy! Look for the Leaping Bunny, an internationally recognized logo for products that have not been tested on animals at any stage of development.
Lard Nutrition Facts & Calories
The closer a food is to the right edge of the map, the more essential nutrients per calorie it contains. The closer a food is to the top edge of the map, the more likely it is to fill you up with fewer calories. If you want to increase your calorie intake without getting too full, choose foods from the bottom half of the map. CALORIC RATIO PYRAMID™ This graphic shows you what percentage of the calories in a food come from carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and alcohol. If you are trying to achieve a specific distribution of calories, such as the 40/30/30 distribution of the Zone™ diet, or the more traditional 60/30/10 distribution, the Caloric Ratio Pyramid™ will show you how recipes, meal plans, or individual foods line up with those goals.
Foods low in fat, for example, will cluster along the bottom edge of the pyramid, ranging from foods that are high in carbohydrates to foods that are high in protein. Foods low in carbohydrates will cluster along the right edge of the pyramid, with foods that are high in fat at the upper edge and foods that are high in protein at the lower edge. Nutrition Data’s patent-pending Estimated Glycemic Load™ is available for every food in the database as well as for custom foods, meals, and recipes in your Pantry. A Completeness Score between 0 and 100 is a relative indication of how complete the food is with respect to these nutrients. Although few individual foods provide all the essential nutrients, the Nutrient Balance Indicator and Completeness Score can help you construct meals that are nutritionally balanced and complete.
Each spoke on the Protein Quality graph represents one of the nine essential amino acids, and the graph shows how close the protein in your diet is to the optimal distribution of amino acids recommended by the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board. NUTRITION DATA’S OPINION Nutrition Data awards foods 0 to 5 stars in each of three categories, based on their nutrient density and their satiating effect.