promoting bioscience literacy
One of them is the ability to engineer transgenic animals, i.e., animals that carry genes from other species. The technology has already produced transgenic animals such as mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and cows. The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Associations defines the term as an animal in which there has been a deliberate modification of its genome, the genetic makeup of an organism responsible for inherited characteristics. A transgenic animal is one whose genome has been changed to carry genes from other species. The majority of transgenic animals produced so far are mice, the animal that pioneered the technology.
Transgenic animals are useful as disease models and producers of substances for human welfare. The underlying principle in the production of transgenic animals is the introduction of a foreign gene or genes into an animal. The success rate of producing transgenic animals individually by these methods is very low and it may be more efficient to use cloning techniques to increase their numbers. In the past, farmers used growth hormones to spur the development of animals but this technique was problematic, especially since residue of the hormones remained in the animal product. C) disease resistance Scientists are attempting to produce disease-resistant animals, such as influenza-resistant pigs, but a very limited number of genes are currently known to be responsible for resistance to diseases in farm animals.
Toxicity-sensitive transgenic animals have been produced for chemical safety testing. Interestingly, the creation of transgenic animals has resulted in a shift in the use of laboratory animals – from the use of higher-order species such as dogs to lower-order species such as mice – and has decreased the number of animals used in such experimentation,26 especially in the development of disease models.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside. Livestock farmers have suffered from wild animal predation and theft by rustlers.
In North America, animals such as the gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics has worked in Zimbabwe to help farmers make their most of their livestock herds. In stock shows, farmers bring their best livestock to compete with one another. Habitat is destroyed by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, while predators and herbivores are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits; for example, animal husbandry is responsible for up to 91% of the deforestation in the Amazon region.
In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the world’s irrigated systems, and that 300 million draft animals were used globally in small-scale agriculture. Even for some livestock owners in developed nations, livestock can serve as a kind of insurance.
Guinea pig care
NEVER house a guinea pig with a rabbit! Guinea pigs need to talk to other guinea pigs, not rabbits! Often, guinea pigs are just bought as friends to ‘play with’ for a rabbit. 3) The rabbit may look smaller than the guinea pig at the moment, but already it is so much stronger. A rabbit could easily kill a guinea pig by accident. We once had a lady come to the door whilst the guinea pigs were in the run and tell us that she had once made the mistake of housing a guinea pig and rabbit together.
Rushing to the vets, an x-ray revealed every bone in the guinea pigs body broken, and the guinea pig was put to sleep. Thats why you shouldn’t house a rabbit and guinea pig together! Loo rolls, mineral licks, tubes and chewtoys will all keep your piggies entertained, but remember that like humans, each guinea pig has its own favourites! A guinea pig should weigh roughly 1000g, but 800-1400g is normal- any less or more and you’ll have to fatten or put your piggie on a diet. WeightA guinea pigs weight is a key way to check on your guinea pigs health, and should be monitered closely. 2) Add a suitable guinea pig sized box, and add some distractions Add the box to the scales and reset so that the weight of the box isn’t added to the weight of the guinea pig. 3) Add a guinea pig!
Make sure the guinea pig is settled happily in the box before you set it on the scales, because if it wiggles too much the box will fall. No guinea pig owner has never not experienced mites once in a while, so don’t panic if your piggie gets them!! Mange mites, lice or mites are all very common, and can be caught from bad bedding or other animals.