America’s past of human experiments revealed
U.S. officials also acknowledged there had been dozens of similar experiments in the United States – studies that often involved making healthy people sick. Attitude similar to Nazi experiments Some of these studies, mostly from the 1940s to the ’60s, apparently were never covered by news media. In federally funded studies in the 1940s, noted researcher Dr. W.
Paul Havens Jr. exposed men to hepatitis in a series of experiments, including one using patients from mental institutions in Middletown and Norwich, Conn. Havens, a World Health Organization expert on viral diseases, was one of the first scientists to differentiate types of hepatitis and their causes. A search of various news archives found no mention of the mental patients study, which made eight healthy men ill but broke no new ground in understanding the disease. Researchers in the mid-1940s studied the transmission of a deadly stomach bug by having young men swallow unfiltered stool suspension.
For a study in 1957, when the Asian flu pandemic was spreading, federal researchers sprayed the virus in the noses of 23 inmates at Patuxent prison in Jessup, Md., to compare their reactions to those of 32 virus-exposed inmates who had been given a new vaccine. Studies using prisoners were uncommon in the first few decades of the 20th century, and usually performed by researchers considered eccentric even by the standards of the day. Last year, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ inspector general reported that between 40 and 65 percent of clinical studies of federally regulated medical products were done in other countries in 2008, and that proportion probably has grown. Syphilis study These issues were still being debated when, last October, the Guatemala study came to light.
In the 1946-48 study, American scientists infected prisoners and patients in a mental hospital in Guatemala with syphilis, apparently to test whether penicillin could prevent some sexually transmitted disease. To focus on federally funded international studies, the commission has formed an international panel of about a dozen experts in ethics, science and clinical research. Some experts say that given such a tight deadline, it would be a surprise if the commission produced substantive new information about past studies.
How dogs could help us explore our own gut health
Scientists are looking to another animal that they argue has an even more similar gut microbiome to that of humans: humans’ best friend, the dog. Luis Pedro Coelho – who currently works in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany – plus colleagues at the EMBL and the Nestlé Purina Research laboratories in St. Louis, MO, hypothesize that dogs may be also be our best friends when it comes to learning more about our own gut health. Their research, the results of which are now published in the journal Microbiome, indicates that dogs’ gut microbiomes overlap a lot more with own than those of mice or pigs. The study – which was co-funded by the Nestlé Purina PetCare Company – was a randomized controlled trial, for which the scientists selected 64 dogs of two breeds: beagle and Labrador retriever.
Over an initial period of 4 weeks, all of these dogs were fed the same commonly available dog food sold on the market. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups: one that was to only receive food that was high in protein content and low in carbs, and another that was fed a low-protein, high-carb diet. This allowed them to assess how similar these microbiomes were to each other in terms of their genetic content, plus how the dogs’ microbiomes were altered by changing diets. The team was surprised to find that the microbiomes of dogs were much more similar to the human gut microbiome than those of mice and pigs. They found a 20 percent overlap between the murine and human gut microbiomes and a 33 percent overlap between our gut microbiomes and those of pigs, but a 63 percent overlap between dogs’ gut microbiomes and our own.
Overweight dogs responded more strongly to a high-protein diet than their slender counterparts, presenting more drastic changes in the composition of their gut microbiomes. Looking at the results of their study, the researchers believe that, in the future, humans’ best friend may be able to help us gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play in our own health. These findings suggest that dogs could be a better model for nutrition studies than pigs or mice, and we could potentially use data from dogs to study the impact of diet on human gut microbiota.
Polluting Pigs Hit With Big Penalty – Health Advice Guide
In 2014, more than 500 North Carolina residents brought suit against the company, saying the operations and manure lagoons were harming their health and lowering property values. The families owned their properties prior to the farm moving into town, and when operations started in 1995, it was all downhill from there. The creation of new CAFO lagoons and the spray systems were banned in 2007, but older farms were allowed to continue their use. Further, while family and individually owned farms made up 83 percent of pig operations, they accounted for just 41 percent of sales. Corporations, which own just 8 percent of pig farms, accounted for 34 percent of sales.
In North Carolina, an EWG analysis revealed that 160,000 residents live within half a mile of a pig or poultry farm.10 Further, court documents used in the plaintiffs’ case against Smithfield revealed the results of a study that detected the presence of pig-manure DNA on the exterior walls of 14 out of 17 homes near the company’s CAFOs. Someone pays the price of production, and for far too long, that burden has been on the rural communities that are home to North Carolina’s factory farms. The AGA standard allows for greater transparency and conformity15 and is intended to ensure the humane treatment of animals and meet consumer expectations about grass fed meat and dairy, while being feasible for small farmers to achieve. The AGA logo on your meat and dairy ensures the animals were born and raised on American family farms. Whether you do so for ethical, environmental or health reasons – or all of the above – I encourage you to support the small family farms in your area.
If you wouldn’t want to visit the farm personally – or live near it – it’s a major red flag that you shouldn’t get your meat from it either. If you don’t have small farms in your area, you can often find free-ranging, pastured meat, organically fed and locally marketed, at farmers markets and food co-ops.