Health Professional Fact Sheet
The amount of selenium in a given type of plant-based food depends on the amount of selenium in the soil and several other factors, such as soil pH, amount of organic matter in the soil, and whether the selenium is in a form that is amenable to plant uptake [2,6,8,9]. As a result, selenium concentrations in plant-based foods vary widely by geographic location [1,2]. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Composition Database, Brazil nuts have 544 mcg selenium/ounce, but values from other analyses vary widely [10-12]. The selenium content of soil affects the amounts of selenium in the plants that animals eat, so the quantities of selenium in animal products also vary [2,5].
However, selenium concentration in soil has a smaller effect on selenium levels in animal products than in plant-based foods because animals maintain predictable tissue concentrations of selenium through homeostatic mechanisms. Supplementation with any of these forms only affected plasma selenium levels and not glutathione peroxidase activity or selenoprotein P concentration, confirming that study participants were selenium replete before they began taking selenium supplements. According to an analysis of data from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the average daily selenium intake in Americans aged 2 years and older from foods is 108.5 mcg and from both foods and supplements is 120.8 mcg. According to an analysis of NHANES data from 2003-2004, the mean serum selenium concentration in U.S. adults aged 40 years or older is 13.67 mcg/dL.
Men have slightly higher serum selenium levels than women, and whites have higher levels than African Americans [16-18]. Selenium intakes and serum concentrations in the United States and Canada vary somewhat by region because of differences in the amounts of selenium in soil and in local foods consumed [6,19]. Observational studies have found an association between lower selenium concentrations in people with HIV and an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, death, and, in pregnant women, HIV transmission to offspring and early death of offspring [25-29]. Some randomized clinical trials of selenium supplementation in adults with HIV have found that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of hospitalization and prevent increases of HIV-1 viral load; preventing HIV-1 viral load progression can lead to increases in numbers of CD4 cells, a type of white blood cell that fights infection [30,31]. Additional clinical trials are needed to better understand the contributions of selenium from food and dietary supplements to cardiovascular health.
In one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100, 200, or 300 mcg/day selenium for 6 months in 368 healthy adults aged 60 to 74 years had no effect on thyroid function, even though plasma selenium levels increased significantly. Ophthalmic outcomes improved in 61% of patients in the selenium group compared with 36% of those in the placebo group, and only 7% of the selenium group had mild progression of the disease, compared with 26% of those in the placebo group. Acute selenium toxicity can cause severe gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, hair loss, muscle tenderness, tremors, lightheadedness, facial flushing, kidney failure, cardiac failure, and, in rare cases, death [2,6]. The FNB has established ULs for selenium from food and supplements based on the amounts of selenium that are associated with hair and nail brittleness and loss. Serum selenium levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
Kafai MR, Ganji V. Sex, age, geographical location, smoking, and alcohol consumption influence serum selenium concentrations in the USA: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
Hog Health Programmes
Amazon UKAmazon CanadaAmazon USA Veterinary Medicine Textbook of Diseases of Pigs, Cattle, Horses, Sheep & Goats With this revised edition of Veterinary Medicine an accompanying Phone App is also offered, presenting in handy mobile format differential diagnoses, synopses of key points from the book, and tips and practical hints on therapeutics. Comprehensive manual of diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs & goats for students, livestock specialists & veterinary practitioners. New 11th edition – farm animal & equine experts Hinchcliff & Constable are joined as editors by Professor Stanley Done, a distinguished authority on the diseases of pigs. FREE POSTER on managing Hospital & Recovery Pens for sick pigs: downloadManagement of ill or injured pigs requires suitable facilities, nutrition, good nursing, veterinary treatment. MORE FREE PIG HEALTH & DISEASE POSTER/LEAFLET DOWNLOADS ARE BELOW.
ISBN: 1861267878Pig Ailments: Recognition and Treatment This clearly written, non-technical book is essential reading for all those who own, or care for pigs. Written by an experienced veterinary surgeon and acknowledged specialist in pig medicine Covers all the principal diseases of breeding animals, both male and female Examines all major pig ailments and considers their clinical signs and diagnosis as well as their treatment, prevention and control Discusses those aspects of pig management that have an impact on the incidence of disease and which lead to a reduction in the productivity of the breeding herd. About the Author: Mark White is a Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, with whom he is registered as a ‘Specialist in Pig Medicine’. Mark is a specialist in pig diseases, a consultant veterinary advisor on swine management and health and writes extensively for professional veterinary journals. INCLUDES: diseases of reproduction parturition the perinatal and neonatal periods lactation and post farrowing problems reproductive breeding problems of the boar enteric, respiratory, nervous, locomotor, skin and exotic diseases swellings, lameness, traumatic injuries septicaemia, sudden death, urinary system conditions health problems of outdoor pigs.
Amazon pages: U.K. Canada USA. FREE LEAFLET on Papular Dermatitis: downloadPapular dermatitis is a term for a rash of small raised red spots occasionally detected in live pigs, but these skin lesions are most often noticed when pig carcases are inspected at the abattoir – they become more obvious after going through the scalding tank. Clinical examination of the individual pig and the investigation of herd problems are covered in detail, along with a study on pig population medicine. Chapters in the book discuss obstetrics, pig haematology and biochemistry as well as differential diagnosis.