Guinea pig health check
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Humans and Pigs in Norway: A “One Health” Perspective on Introduction and Transmission
The objective of the present study was to describe the first known introductions and transmission of MRSA CC398 in pig herds and the subsequent spread to humans in Norway. MRSA in the Norwegian pig population was first investigated in an European Union baseline study in 2008, which did not detect LA-MRSA. In 2011 and 2012, anonymized prevalence studies demonstrated MRSA CC398 in a few samples from a single slaughterhouse and a pig herd [13, 14]. In early 2013, two independent identifiable findings of MRSA CC398 in the Norwegian pig population initiated a public health risk assessment concerning the possible impacts of an increasing prevalence of LA-MRSA in pigs. The first traceable finding of LA-MRSA in pigs occurred in February 2013, and by the end of 2014, outbreak investigations and surveillance had identified MRSA CC398 in 26 pig farms, 2 slaughterhouses and 36 humans.
The trade of pigs was identified as the main route of MRSA CC398 transmission from the 3 primary case farms. A livestock transport vehicle had twice transported pigs from a MRSA CC398-positive finishing farm to a slaughterhouse without subsequent disinfection shortly before transporting pigs to the farm involved and was considered the most likely transmission route. Based on other studies, the trade of pigs has been shown to be the predominant route of transmission of MRSA CC398 among pigs [15, 16], including transboundary transmission. Domestic trade in pigs was found to be the main route of interfarm transmission of MRSA after primary introductions, indicating that limiting the number of farms connected through trade is important in preventing MRSA transmission. Other studies have identified direct contact with positive animals as a major risk factor for MRSA CC398 in humans, and to a lesser extent indirect contact [5, 27, 28].
In addition, an increased incidence rate of MRSA CC398 in the general public without contact with pig farms has been described from areas with a high density of pig herds [8, 9, 29]. In the present study, we did not observe the transmission of MRSA CC398 from the outbreaks to the general public. Public health surveillance data from Norway show that more than one-third of all reported human MRSA cases have acquired MRSA abroad [12, 30]. An increased prevalence of MRSA on Norwegian pig farms could change this epidemiological situation by constituting a new domestic reservoir for MRSA, leading to an increase of the total public health burden of MRSA. Such a development has been described in Denmark, where the rapid spread of MRSA CC398 in the pig population has led this to be the dominant clone found in humans.
The rapid increase of MRSA CC398 in humans in other low-endemic countries, along with results from the present study, highlights the importance of control measures to prevent the introduction and further transmission of MRSA CC398 in pig populations. In conclusion, this study confirms that the trade of pigs and occupational exposure are the major risk factors for transmission of MRSA CC398 between humans and pigs. The surveillance programme for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs in Norway 2014.
Effects of Sun-dried Cassava Peels Supplementation on the Performance of Weaner Pigs
Diet 3, with 30% DCP and 20% whole maize was less efficient in promoting growth, it was the most cost effective and increased profitability because 30% DCP and 20% whole maize are cheaper than 50% dried cassava peels as ingredients for weaner pig rations. This study was therefore, planned to determine the growth performance of wearner pigs fed diets containing dried cassava peals and whole maize in various proportions. Experimental diet: Four experimental diets were formulated using whole maize and sun-dried cassava peels in various proportions. Diet 1 with 50% dried cassava peels and 0% whole maize was the control diet. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.
The performance characteristics as affected by different proportion of dried cassava peels and whole maize in the diets are shown in Table 2. This may have been due to high fibre content of the test diets which has been known to occur with dried cassava peels resulting in greater water intake. The growth performance criteria were not significantly influenced by inclusion of dried cassava peels in the diet of wearner pigs up to 50% levels in the control diet. Result indicated greater feed intake in the control diet of 50% dried cassava peels and 0% maize, portraying a lowered energy concentration of dried cassava peels than maize grains. These workers carried out a preliminary trial on the value of dried cassava peels, in which 13% moist cassava peels at 40-50% levels of diet were fed to pigs and discovered no statistical differences in the live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency between low and high cassava diets.
The significant differences observed in the body weight development also agreed with Stanogias and Pearce who replaced maize with moist cassava peel meal and discovered that pigs on diets containing cassava peel meal grew slightly but not significantly faster and were slightly more efficient in feed conversion than pigs on diets with maize. CONCLUSION. The results of this study is a serious pointer that feeding dried cassava peels solely up to fifty percent can achieve equal or more positive effects than using high level of maize in diet of wearner pigs. Performance of wearner pig fed diet containing different proportion of derided cassava peel and whole maize.