Guinea Pig Care : Bathing a Pet Guinea Pig
Comparative Anatomy of the Male Guinea‐Pig and Human Lower Urinary Tract: Histomorphology and Three‐Dimensional Reconstruction
The revised anatomy of the lower urinary tract and the description of new muscles by 3, 5), i.e. the longitudinal urethral musculature, the musculus dilatator urethrae and the musculus ejaculatorius, need verification in animals. The continence mechanism depends entirely on the external sphincter muscle with its two parts, the inner smooth muscle, musculus sphincter urethrae glaber, and the outer striated musculus sphincter urethrae transversostriatus. In guinea‐pig the urethra was encircled by a sphincter muscle, which corresponds to the human musculus sphincter vesicae surrounding the internal urethral orifice as in humans. This muscle, which we want to call dorsal longitudinal muscle, does not have a direct counterpart in the human.
Compared to the human male this muscle was in the same position as the so‐called musculus sphincter urethrae glaber. There was a very prominent striated muscle, embracing the inner smooth muscle ventrally in the form of a horseshoe, corresponding to the human musculus sphincter urethrae transversostriatus. It was the most prominent muscle of the lower urinary tract of the male guinea‐pig, measuring 1-2 mm in thickness and extending from the bladder base to the bulbo‐urethral glands. To demonstrate the muscle anatomy in the guinea‐pig, a 3‐D reconstruction was developed from transverse serial sections. We have been able to demonstrate, that all muscles described for the human are found in the lower urinary tract of the male guinea‐pig.
As in humans, the following muscles of the bladder outlet and the bladder neck can be defined in the guinea‐pig: a well‐developed musculus sphincter vesicae surrounding the ostium urethrae internum, forming the bladder outlet; a tender musculus sphincter urethrae glaber, which surrounds the urethra caudally; a strong musculus sphincter urethrae transversostriatus, which embraces the urethra in a horseshoe‐shaped fashion, leaving the dorsal circumference open; a strong ventral longitudinal urethral muscle, the musculus dilatator urethrae; and a very faint musculus ejaculatorius running from the colliculus seminalis only a few micrometers caudally within the crista urethralis. In contrast to human anatomy, in the male guinea‐pig there is a dorsal longitudinal urethral muscle, which extends from the bladder outlet to the colliculus seminalis. Some of the muscles are especially well developed, as is the musculus dilatator urethrae, and hence might be well suited for studies on isolated muscle strips or in cell culture.
Inside the human guinea pig capital of North America
These volunteers are in the right spot for this odd line of work: Montreal is the clinical testing capital of North America. Over half of these tests are performed for drugs for sale in Europe, where in many cases stricter laws and higher costs make such testing prohibitive. In Canada, a menu of name brand drugs that ring up annual sales of $28 billion are set to move to the generic market over the next three years, and each one must be tested on human guinea pigs beforehand. There is a booming industry ahead for Quebec’s contract research organizations, hired by drug companies to recruit volunteers and test their drugs, including Algorithme and competitors Anapharm and MDS Pharma Service, the three biggest in the country. Internal Health Canada documents, newly obtained by Maclean’s, show how the government agency was seemingly unaware of the extent of a tuberculosis outbreak in 2005 during a test until three months after the fact-when an American journalist called looking for answers.
The 10 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world all have operations in Quebec, and with them have come dozens of generic drug companies, who, like the name brands, require fast, reliable, government-sanctioned testing of their wares. The federal government further obliged these companies in 2001, when the clinical trial review period was slashed; suddenly it took half the time for pharmaceutical companies to have their drug tests approved by Health Canada. Health Canada’s oversight was put to the test in the fall of 2005, when a volunteer with tuberculosis infected 20 people during an Anapharm-sponsored study. In the of fall 2005, Anapharm had recruited 20 subjects in a clinical test of ISA 247, an experimental immunosuppressant drug produced by Alberta-based Isotechnika. Apart from a Health Canada list of non-binding guidelines suggesting companies should test patients for tuberculosis, little has changed since.
During a recent visit to an Algorithme clinical trial, Maclean’s found several participants who drank alcohol and took prescription medication when both are explicitly forbidden during the testing period. Many of these participants, some who were decades-long veterans of the trade, were well versed in what the company tested for-and what it didn’t.
I Was a Human Guinea Pig
Step 4: Follow the app through multiple rounds of three types of exercises – a sustained hold challenging your endurance; a slow back and forth, during which contractions must match the speed and level of a control line; and a rapid pulsing of the muscles, also in time with the app. The first time, mine was a paltry 4.9; by day three, I’d improved to a 7.9. Though there weren’t any immediate benefits – I haven’t recently had a baby and don’t struggle with incontinence – I did discover how to hack your kGoal so it doubles as a vibrator. My body temperature felt permanently elevated on the days I didn’t shower, just below being uncomfortably warm. Day one of not showering felt pretty much the same as day five, a sensation backed by science: Elaine Larson, associate dean for research at Columbia University’s nursing school, described for me an experiment conducted by a former colleague who cultured the skin of subjects before, during, and after not bathing for seven days.
On the Friday of the second week, I Gchatted him to ask how he honestly felt about the way I was looking and smelling. Once a week was maybe excessive, but I could get behind every third day – more like the British. The Bay Area-based company has devised a line of fitness gear that syncs with an iPhone app, using a real-time heat map to show you which muscles you’re working and how hard. What’s more, it’s recommended the pants be hand-washed, which means I didn’t wash workout pants for three weeks. I’m encouraged to send missives throughout the day that the therapist can respond to in her own time.
The basic idea behind intermittent fasting – little to no eating a couple of days a week punctuated by normal eating – is that our ancestors fasted when they couldn’t find meals, and though we evolved to perform better physically and mentally when we give our organs a break from food, we never do. Monday: I’ve decided that Mondays and Thursdays will be my fasting days, which means no more than 500 calories: black coffee, two eggs, salad with tuna, no dressing, the end.