Guinea Pig Health Checks
Pig Farm, CITY OF HAVERHILL BOARD OF HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR FARMS WITH PIGS AND THE KEEPING OF PIGSAdopted by a vote of the Board of Health on May 15, 2012 Application 1
PURPOSE AND AUTHORITY. The Board of Health of the City of Haverhill hereby promulgates these Regulations under the City of Haverhill Code, Chapter 11, Article VII, §11-32, and G.L. c.111, §§31 and 143, to address the following public health concerns: the spread of diseases, odors, vermin, and other nuisances resulting from the keeping of pigs and piglets and the operation of farms with pigs that threaten the public health of the City’s residents. Given that the unregulated keeping of pigs and unregulated farms with pigs are or could become a nuisance, and in the interest and preservation of public health, the Board therefore sets forth the following Regulations for the management of pigs in the City of Haverhill. These Regulations supersede and are in place of any prior regulations which may have been adopted regulating piggeries and the keeping of pigs in the City of Haverhill. 2.5 The keeping of a single Pig or Piglet is not subject to these Regulations, but shall be subject to all other applicable laws and Board of Health regulations.
DEFINITIONS. Abutter: Owners of land directly opposite on any public or private street or way, and abutters to the abutters within three hundred feet of the property line of the Property upon which the Pigs or Farm with Pigs is located as appearing on the most recent applicable City of Haverhill Assessor’s or other applicable city or town assessor’s records. Farm with Pigs: A Facility for the keeping of Pigs and/or Piglets; sometimes referred to as a pig farm or piggery; a place where Pigs and/or Piglets are kept. Permit: A permit issued by the Board under these Regulations and including a Site Assignment under G.L. c.111, 143, if a Site Assignment would be required for the keeping of Pigs or the Farm with Pigs.
PERMIT. 4.1 No Person shall keep Pigs or operate a Farm with Pigs within the limits of the City of Haverhill, in any building, Facility or Dwelling, or on any Property or premises, without a Permit from the Board. A Permit renewal will not require a new application, provided there have been no changes to the number of Pigs and the nature and extent of the Facility or the use of the Property for the keeping of Pigs or a Farm with Pigs since the previous year’s filing. 4.4 The Board may issue a Permit for a new Farm with Pigs or for the keeping of Pigs only after a public hearing has been held and the Board finds that the Farm with Pigs or the keeping of Pigs complies with these Regulations and will not be a Nuisance or have a Noisome Impact on the City. 4.6 Any Permit issued may be modified or revoked by the Board or its agent without a public hearing if, in the opinion of the Board or its agent, conditions exist which are likely to imminently endanger the health, safety, or welfare of the Pigs or the general public by creating a public health nuisance. REQUIREMENTS. 6.1 Any Person keeping Pigs or operating a Farm with Pigs or a Facility must comply with all application and filing requirements set forth in these Regulations and may only keep pigs or operate a Farm with Pigs or a Facility upon receipt of a Permit from the Board.
Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs
And as described previously, restrictions/concerns on their use have seen many of the alternatives, such as feed additives and dietary interventions, been proposed for use in alleviating the problems encountered with PWD. In this regard, PWD represents an interesting case-in-point because it is a condition, in the absence of AGP, which can be approached using feed and/or feed additives as possible solutions. It is recognized, for example, that both the source and level of dietary protein are known to influence enteric health in piglets, and a considerable body of research dating back to the 1950s and 1960s has implicated an association between protein level in the diet and diarrhea after weaning. A key component of this association to PWD is the amount and type of fiber present in the diet, and numerous studies have investigated relationships between the amount and type of both dietary carbohydrate and protein on GIT characteristics and PWD [26, 27]. Kim et al.
In this study, the authors fed diets containing 190-200 g protein/kg diet that were based on extruded rice or raw wheat without and with 20 g/kg oat hulls. The protein sources were all animal proteins to limit other sources of NSP in the diet. The basal diets without oat hulls contained 3 g and 11 g soluble NSP and 9 g and 66 g insoluble NSP/kg diet, respectively for extruded rice and raw wheat-based diets. Interestingly, expression of PWD was higher only in pigs fed an extruded rice-based diet without oat hull supplementation while the pigs fed a wheat-based diet without oat hulls did not develop PWD. This interaction may possibly indicate that the ratio between fermentable protein and carbohydrates in the GIT could affect the development of PWD.Studies have also evaluated the influence of dietary protein feeding on the composition of the microbiota, however and as highlighted by Heo.et al.
A consistent way to reduce the incidence and severity of PWD appears to be feeding of a lower-protein diet, and indeed, offering a lower-protein diet with essential amino acid supplementation or appropriate ingredients, and for as little as 5 days after weaning , improves indicators of GIT health in piglets without imposing a production loss. Suggested that feeding a low-protein diet could also act synergistically with other nutritional interventions to promote growth performance in piglets. These authors reported that a low-protein diet acted synergistically with probiotics to improve growth performance in piglets compared with in-feed antibiotics. Supplementation of pig starter diets with probiotics is recognized as one of the non-pharmaceutical alternatives/replacements to antibiotics in weaned pig diets. These authors explained that the synergistic effect between the low protein diet and the probiotic used in the current study on post-weaning performance of piglets was probably a result of different mechanisms by which they control E.
coli K88 populations, with the low protein diet reducing the amount of substrate available for E. coli K88 proliferation and the probiotic strains of non-pathogenic E. coli inhibiting the pathogenic E. coli K88 via production of colicin.