Pig Production online study
Pig husbandry and welfare Pig health and disease management. It provides a substantial foundation in pig husbandry, biology and production; with an emphasis on learning all the requirements to manage the practical daily needs of pigs. Develop strategies for marketing, including both traditional and innovative marketing plans of pigs and pig products. Explain the function of the different parts of a pigs digestive system, including the: oesophagus stomach duodenum intestines colon anus List various food sources for different food nutrients for pigs, including: Carbohydrates Proteins Minerals Vitamins Analyse the ingredients in a pig diet, being used at a commercial piggery. Describe food ration requirements for a specific pig, with reference to: Carbohydrates Proteins Minerals Vitamins Prepare a sample of pig feed suitable for either a boar, a weaner, or a porker.
Explain the differences in feeding pigs under different circumstances, including: young pigs growing pigs gestating sows lactating sows replacement gilts breeding boars Explain the techniques used to physically handle pigs in different situations, including: at a piggery during transportation during slaughter for meat when showing Prepare a timetable of husbandry tasks, from weaning to marketing, for fattening a pig. But commercially viable, systems of raising pigs, with reference to costs; materials; equipment; labour and production output Prepare an annual program of routine pig husbandry tasks, for a specified enterprise. Write a management procedure, including contingency arrangements, for control of production targets and budgeted costs on a pig farm. Determine three innovations in the pig industry, which may improve management of a specified pig enterprise. Develop a production plan for pigs on a specified property, which includes: a production timetable details of animals required lists of facilities required materials requirements a schedule of husbandry tasks cost estimates Design a form for record keeping of appropriate piggery data.
Hybrid Pig Breeding Improves the Pig Herd One of the first companies to carry out a hybrid pig breeding program was the British Oil and Cake Millers in the UK. Their pig improvement scheme was begun in 1963 because research had shown that many commercial strains of pigs were unable to make the best use of the company’s improved pig rations. The thermal environment is particularly important in pig production as a properly ventilated environment provides numerous benefits to the pig producer.
Update: Interim Guidance for Minimizing Risk for Human Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection Associated with Pet Rodents
This report updates information about the ongoing investigation and provides interim measures for reducing the risk for LCMV infection from pet rodents associated with this outbreak. LCMV testing of other rodents at the pet store identified three other LCMV-infected rodents. On the basis of sequence analysis, the LCMV from the transplant recipients, the donor’s pet rodent, and from rodents obtained from the Rhode Island pet store and the Ohio distributor were determined to have the same lineage. LCMV test results for the sampled rodents and records reviewed at the Rhode Island pet store and at MidSouth Distributors indicate that LCMV-infected pet rodents might have been transported from the Ohio facility to pet stores in the northeastern and midwestern United States as early as February 2005. The unreliability of serologic testing is of concern because certain species of pet rodents infected with LCMV can shed virus for up to 8 months without signs of illness and thus can be a source of infection for humans.
Practices that can lead to cross-contamination of rodents include 1) housing healthy rodents in the same room or bin or in cages near potentially infected rodents; 2) handling or caring for rodents without washing hands or changing gloves after handling other rodents and between other animal-care activities, such as cleaning cages; 3) placing rodents in cages that previously housed other rodents without first decontaminating the cages with bleach or other appropriate disinfectants; and 4) reusing materials that might be contaminated by potentially infected rodents. If sale of rodents is allowed to continue, populations at high risk should be advised against purchasing a pet rodent. Testing of individual pet rodents in households is not a recommended strategy to minimize risk for LCMV infection; the probability of any one rodent in the United States being infected is low. The greatest infection risk for a pet owner is likely to occur soon after purchase of a pet rodent. To prevent any possible infection of other rodents in stores, owners should not return pet rodents from MidSouth Distributors to pet stores.
CDC continues to work with state public health officials and retailers in the pet industry to educate the public regarding safe handling of pet rodents and has prepared educational material for reducing the risk for LCMV infection from pet rodents. CDC. Interim guidance for minimizing risk for human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection associated with rodents.
With the rapid rise of the industrial food animal production system, an increasing number of food animals once raised on pastures are now raised in feedlots. Feedlot-raised animals are kept indoors for the majority of the year, and they are given feed formulated to speed their growth to market weight and supply them with essential nutrients, while minimizing costs to operators. Concerns have arisen about the content of these feeds as grain-based diets can produce serious and sometimes fatal digestive tract problems in food animals such as cows, goats, and sheep whose stomachs are best suited to digesting high-cellulose containing plants like grass. Recent studies have shown that chemical additives in feed may accumulate in animal tissues, potentially exposing consumers to unwanted chemicals such as veterinary drug residues and heavy metals. Livestock producers often use corn and soy as a base for their animal feed because these protein-rich grains help bring animals to market weight faster, and because they are cheaper than other feed options as a result of government subsidies.
As a result, a large percentage of grains grown in the US are used in animal feed, with 47% of soy and 60% of corn produced in the US being consumed by livestock. Although cheap feed grains mean lower meat and dairy prices for consumers, meat from grass fed animals is often lower in saturated fat than meat from grain fed animals. Unlike pasture raised animals, grain fed cattle are often raised on grass early in their lives, then moved to a feedlot where they are fed rations composed of 70 to 90 percent grain. On industrial hog farms, these large herds are kept in crowded quarters, increasing the probability of agression between animals and making the spread of diseases easier because of close contact between hogs. Hogs naturally want to root and dig during feeding, so allowing these behaviors in the pasture reduces aggression and agitation among members of the herd, improving the overall health of the animals.
The Results The overreliance on grain-based animal feeds in industrial food animal production has negative consequences for animal health, the environment, and even human health. Considering the natural eating habits of livestock animals when formulating animal feeds would be beneficial to both animals and consumers, and will result in healthier herds and flocks, less reliance on antibiotics to control disease, as well as a lower chance of introducing certain pathogens into society via contaminated meat.