Guinea Worm Eradication Program
Since 1986, The Carter Center has led the international campaign to eradicate Guinea worm disease, working closely with ministries of health and local communities, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and many others. Inside a human’s abdomen, Guinea worm larvae mate and female worms mature and grow. Guinea worm sufferers may try to seek relief from the burning sensation caused by the emerging worm and immerse their limbs in water sources, but this contact with water stimulates the emerging worm to release its larvae into the water and begin the cycle of infection all over again. There is no known curative medicine or vaccine to prevent Guinea worm disease – the same treatment for emerging worms has been used for thousands of years. Traditional removal of a Guinea worm consists of winding the worm around a piece of gauze or small stick and manually extracting it – a slow, painful process that often takes weeks. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program is wiping out this ancient disease mainly through community-based interventions to educate and change behavior, such as teaching people to filter all drinking water and preventing transmission by keeping anyone with an emerging worm from entering water sources. A new challenge to eradication has been the emergence recently of numerous Guinea worm infections in dogs. Volunteers trained by Chad’s Guinea Worm Eradication Program with the Carter Center’s help have been encouraging people in those areas to bury fish discards, and cash rewards are being paid for reporting infected animals and for keeping them away from water sources. The Guinea worm eradication campaign has averted at least 80 million cases of this devastating disease among the world’s poorest and most neglected people. The Carter Center spearheads the international Guinea worm eradication campaign and works in close partnership with national programs, the World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, UNICEF, and many other partners. The Carter Center leads the international Guinea worm disease eradication campaign, compiles and distributes case numbers, and provides technical and financial support to national programs to interrupt Guinea worm disease transmission and bring cases to zero. UNICEF mainly assists countries by helping to provide safe sources of drinking water to priority areas identified by the national Guinea worm eradication programs.
Public Health and Medical Entomology
Other species of fleas that are parasites of rodents are involved in the transmission of plague and murine typhus, both of which occur in the southwestern U.S. You are encouraged to learn more about the biology of fleas, especially the cat flea, so that you can make more informed decisions about health risks to you and your pets, how to avoid being bitten, how to prevent or suppress infestations, and whether flea control is warranted in and around your residence. Bites of cat fleas can be very annoying to humans because chemicals in flea saliva stimulate an immune response that causes itching. At least 30 species of fleas have been found on mammals in Indiana, but only the cat flea is a serious pest of pets, livestock, and humans. Despite its common name, the cat flea is the primary flea that infests dogs. The presence of flea bites on a person suggests that the home is supporting the development of flea larvae, which can be a continuous source of adult fleas that then infest your pets. Infested barns can be a continual source of adult cat fleas that can infest cats and dogs that sleep in them, and a source of flea bites to people who enter them. Pet owners contribute to the success of cat fleas by failing to monitor their pets for the presence of adult fleas and by failing to practice sanitation methods that reduce the development of flea larvae. Effective control of cat fleas can be difficult and complicated, and depends on the conditions in and around homes, yards, and barns that affect the number of flea larvae that develop. We recommend consulting with a veterinarian regarding which product and approach to use for control of fleas on pets and consulting with a professional pest control company regarding which product and approach to use for control of flea infestations in homes, yards, and barns. Several Web sites provide information on the biology and control of fleas, nearly all of which focus on the cat flea. The following Web site is recommended for accurate and detailed information on fleas of public health risk, including information on plague and murine typhus, and the chigoe flea, Tunga penetrans. A recent textbook by G. Mullen and L. Durden, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, has an excellent chapter devoted to fleas and flea-borne diseases that cover biology, behavior, medical and veterinary risk, and general information on prevention and control.
Drugs Derived From Pigs and Their Clinical Alternatives
CONTENTS. PORCINE.qxd 9/11/04 4:31 pm Page 4 Foreword: Patient choice in medicine taking The religious and cultural aspects of porcine derived products Drug development and the move towards synthetically produced medicines Reference list of drugs of porcine origin and their alternatives Involving patients in decisions about porcine-derived medication Signposts to patient choice information Appendix One: considerations when caring for a Jewish patient References 1 2 6 10 16 19 20 23 III. qxd 9/11/04 4:31 pm Page 5 FOREWORD.PORCINE. This in turn is only possible if both you and the health professionals involved in your care. The prescribing of porcine derived medicines needs to be sensitive to the beliefs of the different faiths. Requirements of different faiths need to be considered The dietary requirements of different faiths should be taken into account when prescribing and administering porcine derived medicines. Qxd 9/11/04 4:31 pm Page 8 Christians in Afro-Caribbean communities often choose not to eat pork.8 Muslim patients and medicine taking Only 50% of patients believed that their doctor was aware of their religious needs in respect of medicine taking. Although porcine derived medicines could potentially be an issue for patients of a number of faiths or dietary preference. Porcine derived medication is only an issue for medicines taken by mouth. To make drugs created two major challenges: ensuring there were enough supplies of the biological source to produce as much medicine as was needed risk of possible infection from the source. Most medicines are derived from animal and plant compounds. 1 This booklet aims to clarify where there are clinical alternatives and to provide appropriate information to enable patients to have choice in their medicine taking. There may be a suitable synthetic alternative to some porcine derived medicines. Qxd 9/11/04 4:31 pm Page 24 SIGNPOSTS TO PATIENT CHOICE IN MEDICINE TAKING INFORMATION This booklet is intended to help patients and their carers with the background to religious and cultural issues associated with of drugs of porcine origin and the need for informed patient choice in a multicultural society. About medicines mp medicines partnership M B Supported by Sanofi-Synthelabo as a service to medicine.