Impacts of low level aflatoxin in feed and the use of modified yeast cell wall extract on growth and health of nursery pigs
This study was to investigate the effect of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxins under the regulatory level on the growth performance and health of nursery pigs, and the efficiency of yeast cell wall based feed additive mainly composed of β-glucans and mannan oligosaccharide in prevention of mycotoxicosis. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design based on a 2 2 factorial arrangement with 10 pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. First factor was AF and the second factor was YC. Feed intake and body weight were measured weekly, and blood samples were used to measure blood cell counts, immunoglobulin G, tumor necrosis factor-a, oxidative damage status, and serological evaluation related to liver health. Aflatoxin decreased the number of platelet count, and it also tended to increase the level of albumin, albumin:globulin ratio, and Ca. Yeast cell wall based feed additive increased ADG, and ADFI of pigs whereas G:F was not affected, and it also tended to increase albumin level. Interactions on hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count indicated that YC further increased their levels when pigs were eating AF contaminated feed. Interactions on urea nitrogen and blood urea N to creatinine ratio indicated that YC further decreased their levels when feed were contaminated with AF. In conclusion, low level of 20 µg AF/kg under the regulatory level had minor effects on hematology without affecting growth performance, however the supplementation of 2 g/kg YC as a source of β-glucans and MOS in feed can improve feed intake and therefore the growth of pigs.
FAO’s Animal Production and Health Division: Pigs and Animal Health
Achievements in pig production always go hand-in-hand with improved animal health. Even though there have been major achievements in disease control and prevention, the pig production sector continues to be threatened by emerging trans-boundary diseases. A good deal of work has been done to minimize the impacts of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, and more will be needed in the future. These impacts include the clinical effects on animals and the effects on consumers and the public in terms of health and wellbeing. The various systems of pig production in today’s world experience diverse patterns of disease. Where pigs are kept in small-scale holdings, there is often little investment in animal health; efficient disease control is hard to achieve, and preventable diseases threaten the livelihoods of subsistence-level producers. In large-scale industrialized holdings, these diseases can be controlled through improved bio-security and prevention measures – but greater animal densities increase the risk of other diseases and syndromes. In some situations, intensive pig production may be a driver in the emergence of disease by facilitating increased virulence. Control of swine diseases has been dominated by private-sector initiatives, and much of the research focuses on diseases affecting the commercial sector. Less has been done to reduce the burden of poverty-related diseases such as cysticercosis or African swine fever, despite their relevance for food security and the public health sector. There is a need for more joint public and private investments in pig health that are balanced and that take all stakeholders into account.
Bedding for Guinea Pig Cages
AspenAspen is a hardwood shaving which does not have the problems with phenols associated with the softwood beddings such as pine and cedar. See the Pine Info Page for more details Cell-Sorb PlusMfg site: www. Cell-Sorb is a heavy bedding and fairly expensive, although it does last longer than pine and regular paper-based beddings. Most people advise buying only “Kiln-dried” pine. Some people argue all pine is “Kiln-dried.” It is not. Some pine is “Air-dried.” Pine gives off aromatic hydrocarbons which is the problem with cedar, although per the available documentation, the risk of pine appears to be less than that associated risk with cedar. Some people argue that pine is also toxic to small animals. Some people say their guinea pigs have lived on pine their entire lives and are just fine. The Pine Info Page provides some of the details on the pine issue. Even one of the most widely available brands of pine in pet stores, Kaytee, states on their website – even though their shavings are kiln-dried:*Recommended for open, well ventilated cages and aquariums. The natural pine oils help suppress microorganisms and provides a clean, fresh aroma. Petstell pine shavings, another popular brand in pet stores, also states on their site that their shavings are kiln-dried. Tips.If it smells like pine, then you are smelling the phenols, you need to do something to reduce your guinea pig’s exposure. Covering the pine with a layer of more absorbent material, such as CareFresh, should even further reduce any phenols from escaping. Wood pellets tend to last a couple of days longer than pine shavings and paper-based beddings.
Guinea Pig Urine Discolouration
Guinea Pig Urine Discolouration is not a normal condition and should be raised with Veterinarian in case your guinea pig is suffering from a condition which needs prompt treatment. Guinea Pig’s Urine should be either a Pale Yellow or a Yellow colour. It is possible to see changes in the colour of your Guinea Pigs Urine. Blood in urine is not visible to the naked eye and if there are no other symptoms which Yellow Urine darkens to Red-Brown after exposure to light. Dipstick Test will differentiate between Blood and just “Red/Brown Urine”. Orange/Red urine is produced when Porphyrins are excreted in the urine. Consumption of certain Vegetables & Plants like Beetroot, some bark, Blackberries, or those high in Beta-Carotene, such as Carrots & Spinach can exhibit more red pigments in the urine. Normal Urine may appear Darker if your Guinea Pig is Dehydrated. Excessive amounts of Iron or B Vitamins passed in Urine and can cause Orange/Red/Brown discolouration in the urine. Some Antibiotics may increase levels of Pigments in the urine. Liver & Blood Diseases can result in increased levels of Bilirubin and Urobilingen that change the urine colour. You will generally see blood mixed evenly with urine. When urine dries you may see White Chalky residue, Generally as a rule some white urine residue is not normally a problem, as it means excessive Calcium is being recreated properly. Excessive White Patches or pure White Urine means that Calcium Intake should be reduced. If White Urine and Blood is also Present along with Straining and Squeaking while urinating could identify a possible stone and should be checked by a veterinary surgeon for diagnosis.