Vaccines contain “Safe” microorganisms which are injected into a pig to prepare its immune system to resist disease. Vaccines are given to prevent a disease before it occurs. Production Stage Disease* When To Vaccinate Pigs should be vaccinated for a disease before they will encounter the microorganisms causing it. Leptospirosis is a disease which can cause abortion. For some piglet diseases, such as scours caused by E. coli bacteria, often the best strategy is to vaccinate the sow before farrowing. Gilts prebreed Leptospirosis Parvovirus Erysipelas Twice before breeding Sows prebreed Leptospirosis Parvovirus Erysipelas Before breeding Boars Leptospirosis Parvovirus Erysipelas Twice a year Gilts prefarrow E. coli Atrophic rhinitis Twice before farrowing Sows prefarrow E. coli Atrophic rhinitis Before farrowing Baby pigs Atrophic rhinitis Once or twice before weaning Grower Erysipelas When purchased as feeder pigs Which Vaccinations Are Necessary Several other vaccinations could be recommended by your veterinarian if the disease has been diagnosed in the herd and if an effective vaccine is available. The cost of the vaccine and the labor to administer it should be Vaccinating for every possible disease is not cost effective. Vaccinate to prevent diseases which have a high risk of occurring, not diseases with a low risk. Your veterinarian will only recommend such a step if control of certain diseases on your farm has not been accomplished by other measures or if a commercial vaccine has not been effective. If a pig’s immune system is weakened by a stressful environment or inadequate nutrition, an overwhelming disease challenge can cause disease even in a vaccinated pig. In many cases, diseases can be better controlled by good sanitation and management than by vaccination alone. Read the label to see what diseases and microorganisms the vaccine is designed to protect against. Some producers may over-vaccinate for one disease or fail to vaccinate for another. To ensure protection against disease, vaccines must be administered properly. Since swine pseudorabies is a disease the government is attempting to eradicate, vaccination must be approved by state and federal regulatory agencies.
Preventative Care is Best For Guinea Pig Health by Mike Andrews
Of course if you feel your cavy is sick then don’t delay in getting him or her to the veterinarian for a checkup and treatment. You can practice good guinea pig health by providing your cavy with preventative health care. Cavies are hardy little creatures and with good preventative health care they can have a long, healthy life. There are some basic levels of care that you can provide your cavy to keep him healthy. Make sure they have something like a “Nest box” where they can hide away if they need to * If possible have two cavies – they love companionship and it really is best for them * Make sure their cage or hutch is clean, dry, and away from cold drafts * Make sure that their cage location is not subject to extreme heat or humidity * Keep them in a quiet environment * Give them fun toys, and specifically chew toys to keep their teeth healthy and trimmed * Most importantly, give them lots of your attention. In order to recognize a sick cavy, it is first important to know how a healthy cavy looks and acts. A healthy cavy will have bright, clear eyes and a shiny coat. A healthy cavy will act alert, have a good appetite, will drink water, will vocalize, play, and have normal urination and poop. A sick cavy will be lethargic, have no appetite, is not drinking water, may have abnormal posture, and is not having normal urination and poops. Cavies can come down with a variety of bacterial and fungal infections, and parasites, which can cause problems with their eyes, ears, and digestive system. It is important to give your pet cavy a daily looking over to make sure they aren’t coming down with something, because when a cavy comes down with an illness it becomes very fragile and it’s health can deteriorate very quickly in a very short period of time. Heatstroke: Cavies can overheat very easily if exposed to high temperatures. Respiratory Problems: If you hear your cavy wheezing, sneezing, or otherwise having difficulty breathing you need to take these symptoms seriously. These symptoms may be caused by bacterial infection and your pet could develop pneumonia, the most frequent cause of death in cavies. A daily routine that includes handling your pet cavy so that you can give it an “Examination” is a good idea.
Guinea Pig Vitamin C Requirements
Guinea pigs are unique among other small mammals in their dietary requirements, since they require Vitamin C. Like humans, they are missing an enzyme that is necessary for the body to make Vitamin C. Therefore, they require supplemental Vitamin C in their diet. Although guinea pig pellets have added Vitamin C, storage or exposure to light can rapidly destory it. Timothy hay and other grasses are poor sources of vitamn C. Therefore, we should not rely on the pellets or hay to provide the guinea pig with its Vitamin C requirements. Low Vitamin C or High Oxalates in comparison to the Vitamin C. In addition to fresh guinea pig pellets, timothy hay, and fresh fruits and vegetables, it is generally recommended to provide guinea pigs with a daily vitamin C supplement in case they are not receiving adequate amounts in their diet. Oral supplements in the form of flavored tablets for guinea pigs are available and are an excellent option. An adult guinea pig should receive 25 mg of Vitamin C daily. Use products for guinea pigs that only contain Vitamin C. Using a multiple vitamin product to provide sufficient Vitamin C may result in an overdose of the other vitamins. Vitamin C tablets may be fed directly or crushed and sprindled on moistened fruits or vegetables. Vitamin C liquids are also available that can be given directly. There are vitamin C drops that can be added to the drinking water, but the vitamin C in the water breaks down rapidly and may change the taste of the water, resulting in the guinea pig not drinking sufficient amounts of water. Signs of a Vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs can develop quite rapidly if they are being fed a deficient diet. Poor bone and teeth development and a painful mouth. Bleeding gums and hemorrhages under the skin and into the joints. If identified before the guinea pig becomes too ill, the Vitamin C deficiency can be corrected and the guinea pig will recover, although Vitamin C injections and force feeding may be necessary if the guinea pig has a decreased appetite. Vitamin C injections are often necessary for any ill guinea pig, since it will usually eat less and therefore not take in sufficient Vitamin C..