Drug-Test Human Guinea Pigs: Men’s Health.com
Others who are healthy just participate in the occasional study for some extra cash. In a Johns Hopkins survey of research volunteers published last spring in Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 10 percent of the sampled group admitted to participating in more than one study at a time – most likely without the knowledge of the researchers. Nancy Kass, Sc.D., the lead author of the Johns Hopkins study, agrees. “In one institution, it’s easy to keep track of who’s in what study. But if you go to Duke one week and the University of North Carolina the next week, who would know?”. As a result, there’s little chance of catching volunteers who skirt the rules, and that includes people who keep quiet about past or current physical conditions that have the potential to skew study results. While confidentiality rules give guinea pigs the cover they need to straddle multiple studies, those guinea pigs also benefit from a testing system that increasingly overlooks-and sometimes even encourages – abuse. The most time-consuming part of any study? Finding volunteers. Struggling immigrants, the chronically unemployed, cash-strapped college students – anyone who’s financially needy is fodder for a CRO-run study and more likely to be a professional guinea pig. Within a year, he’d moved to Austin – lab rats consider it the mecca for clinical trials in the United States – and has been supporting himself with research studies ever since. “After my first study, I researched all the clinics and created the site to start preaching the cardinal rules – like telling the truth and waiting the right amount of time between studies. As long as your lab tests are in range, a clinic has no way to verify you’re doubling up unless you flat out tell them.” Doubling up on studies or skirting the guidelines is tough for them, because the institutions where they’re tested keep good records and share detailed information about study participants. The government is not much better at monitoring its own studies. Still, in theory, any problems missed by the OHRP or the FDA would be caught by an institutional review board, or IRB. Before any clinical trial can proceed, an IRB evaluates the study plan to make sure the testing is ethical and that participants’ rights are protected. Today many IRBs are run for profit, creating an incentive to rule favorably on studies so that CROs won’t take their business elsewhere. “Rather than have the government review the study, the institutions conducting the research select people to review their research,” says Dr. Lurie.
Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science
One source of the red or reddish-brown hogs that were found in the United States was reputed to be those that came from the Guinea coast of Africa, and it is said that hogs similar to those found on the Guinea coast were found in every country to which early slave trading vessels found their way. In The Story of Durocs it is stated that red hogs were brought to America by Columbus on his second voyage, and red hogs were also brought to this country by DeSoto. These were presumed to have come from Spain and Portugal, and red hogs were sent from Portugal to Nova Scotia. In The Breeds of Livestock, Sanders is of the opinion that reddish-brown hogs of the Berkshire strain were brought to the United States and probably found their way into the Duroc breed. Daniel Webster imported similar hogs from Spain or Portugal in 1852 for his farm in Massachusetts, but Mr. Webster died soon afterward, and the hogs passed to the ownership of his relatives and were scattered into several states. The exact distribution of these importations and others that were probably made is not known, so it cannot be accurately stated just what part any of these hogs may have played in the formation of the Duroc breed. Two distinct strains of hogs, the Jersey Red of New Jersey and the Duroc of New York, entered into the building of the Duroc-Jersey breed. The strain of hogs that later became known as the Jersey Reds was well established in New Jersey prior to 1850. Clark Pettit, a very noted early breeder of red hogs in that state, suggested that the red hogs found in New Jersey came from an importation to the state in 1820, but others have suggested that the strain was found there at even an earlier date. These hogs were referred to as “Red hogs” for many years and gained an enviable reputation because of their extreme size, rugged constitutions, and prolificacy. The name Jersey Reds was first attached to the hogs in the New Jersey area by Joseph B. Lyman, Agricultural Editor of the New York Tribune, who resided in New Jersey. The Duroc hogs were of smaller size and more compact, but had greater quality and aptitude to take on fleshing at an early age than did the Jersey Reds. Most of the red hogs in Connecticut at that time were said to have been of the Red Berkshire strain that had come to Long Island around 1820. While the Durocs of that day are said to have been smaller than the Jersey Reds, they were extremely heavy compared to what we think of as modern market hogs. In 1882 two different breeders imported Tamworths into the United States to cross on the strains of red hogs of the time.