A barrier facility within which personnel, equipment and animals move freely or where animals are kept in open cages. In addition to animal care staﬀ, numerous researchers enter the experimental animal unit to conduct protocols. The design of the programme must be tailored to local needs and requires consideration of the microbiological unit(s), the animal species, the immune status and number of animals in the unit(s), the frequency of monitoring, which animals and sample(s) are to be collected, the organisms for which to test, the detection methods and the health history of the unit. Local prevalence of an infectious agent may also depend on numerous other factors, such as the strain, immune status, age and sex of the animals, and the local conditions in each unit, such as open cages or microisolation cages, intensity of animal movement within and between facilities, and working routines. Animals for testing and sampling The choice of animals and samples to test is important for accurate HM programme results. In addition to those scheduled for routine monitoring, sick and dead animals or samples from these animals should be submitted for examination. Resident animals In a breeding facility containing at least 100 animals of the same strain or stock, and kept in open cages under conventional handling procedures, the so-called ‘ILAR 186 Laboratory Animals 48(3) Table 7. Sentinel animals In some experimental and breeding units a number of factors, such as housing conditions, immunodeﬁciency of resident animals, or insuﬃciency of animals may not allow for the direct sampling of resident animals. Generally, sentinel animals should be of the same animal species as the population to be examined. 37,39 If serological methods are to be used, the sentinel animals should be immunocompetent young animals, which usually mount a good immune response. A disadvantage of immunodeﬁcient animals is that they may serve as a source of persistent infection for the other resident animals. Sentinel animals may acquire infectious agents present in a microbiological unit by indirect or direct contact with colony animals. 40-42 Sentinel animals may also be fed from used feeding devices and drinking bottles or even housed in cages previously occupied by resident animals. Studies on rodents infected with some prevalent agents, such as parvoviruses, have shown that some infected animals are poor responders and may seroconvert slowly or not at all.37,38 Seroconversion also depends on the dose, biological attributes of the agent and the genetic composition, age and immune status of the infected animal. Data reﬂecting the health status of animals used in an experiment are part of the experimental work and should therefore be evaluated for their inﬂuence on the results of experiments and included in scientiﬁc reports and publications as part of the animal speciﬁcation.
The Pig Guide
Bayer is committed to ensuring that the relationships between animals and humans remains positive, to protect animals and benefit people. Boehringer Ingelheim is committed to providing the unique knowledge, products and support services producers and veterinarians need to minimise disease transmission, maximise immune response and optimise profitability; helping to shape the future of swine health. Ceva Animal Health is a global animal health company focused on innovation, R&D and production of quality products for the swine producer. Gleptosil is the trusted Iron brand and Pracetam and Exflow, combined with specific water cleaning solutions EndoSan-CWD complete the comprehensive range of quality pig products available. We are suppliers of quality animal health products and sundries to the UK pig industry ERFS offer a next day national delivery. ECO Animal Health, a global animal health company headquartered in London, UK develops and licenses branded products to promote animal well-being and sustainable productivity through the careful and responsible application of. Our UK products include Ecomectin® and Ecozole® worming premixes for pigs. Elanco provides comprehensive products and knowledge services to improve animal health and food-animal production in more than 70 countries. Elanco anticipates, serves and supports the diverse and evolving needs of its customers, from veterinarians to producers to all those concerned with animal health. HUVEPHARMA® is a fast-growing global pharmaceutical company with a focus on developing, manufacturing and marketing animal health products such as veterinary pharmaceuticals, anticoccidials, feed additives, medicated premixes, and enzymes. MSD Animal Health offers animal health professionals, farmers, pet owners and Governments the widest range of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services. MSD Animal Health is dedicated to preserving and improving the health, well-being and performance of animals. Vetsonic is an independent company working in the farming and veterinary industry, whose large product range includes veterinary medicines and an array of animal health products, artificial insemination equipment and consumables and of course the revolutionary and proven Olmix Eco‑Concept range, which includes MMi.S – the broadest spectrum mycotoxin binder in a new microgranule formulation for easier milling and Mistral – the award winning sanitising desiccant powder for improved hygiene and welfare. Virbac is an international veterinary pharmaceutical company committed to the development and manufacture of animal health products offering quality, effectiveness, convenience and ease-of-use. In the UK, Virbac markets a range of pig medicines specially formulated to provide Veterinary Surgeons and pig farmers with cost-effective animal health services and solutions.