Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus or swine-origin influenza virus is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. The Swine flu was initially seen in humans in Mexico in 2009, where the strand of the particular virus was a marriage of 3 types of strands. Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person’s recent and past medical history. During the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to “Consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the seven days preceding their illness onset.” A diagnosis of confirmed swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample. Transmission of influenza from swine to humans who work with swine was documented in a small surveillance study performed in 2004 at the University of Iowa. Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely distinct, although because of reassortment there have been transfers of genes among strains crossing swine, avian, and human species boundaries. Swine influenza is caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N3, H3N1, and H3N2. In pigs, four influenza A virus subtypes are the most common strains worldwide. Swine can be infected by both avian and human flu strains of influenza, and therefore are hosts where the antigenic shifts can occur that create new influenza strains. For the following 60 years, swine influenza strains were almost exclusively H1N1. Then, between 1997 and 2002, new strains of three different subtypes and five different genotypes emerged as causes of influenza among pigs in North America. These strains, which include genes derived by reassortment from human, swine and avian viruses, have become a major cause of swine influenza in North America. The 1918 flu pandemic in humans was associated with H1N1 and influenza appearing in pigs; this may reflect a zoonosis either from swine to humans, or from humans to swine. There were seven cases of Swine flu reported in Punjab province of Pakistan mainly in the city of Multan in January 2016.Cases of Swine Flu have also been reported in Lahore. Around 1918, the ancestral virus, of avian origin, crossed the species boundaries and infected humans as human H1N1. The same phenomenon took place soon after in America, where the human virus was infecting pigs; it led to the emergence of the H1N1 swine strain, which later became the classic swine flu. Around 1979, the avian H1N1 strain infected pigs and gave rise to Euroasiatic swine flu and H1N1 Euroasiatic swine virus, which is still being transmitted in swine populations.
Guinea Pig Care & Health
There are over 40 different breeds of guinea pig recognised by the British Cavy Council and these include many different colours, coat types and coat lengths so there is definitely a guinea pig to suit everyone. Guinea pigs live on average for 4-8 years and owning them is very rewarding, but it is also a big responsibility and commitment in terms of care and finances, so please think about this before you buy your guinea pigs. Guinea pigs have certainly been around people for a very long time and have played an important role in the culture of many indigenous groups in South America, not only as a food source but also in medicine and in religious ceremonies; statues of guinea pigs that date from around 500 BC to 500 AD have been found in Peru and it is believed some of the ancient Peruvian tribes depicted the guinea pig in their art. The guinea pigs that we now keep as pets are descendants of wild guinea pigs found in the Andes that were introduced to Europe in the 16th century. No one knows exactly where the name Guinea Pig came from, but in the 16th century traders brought guinea pigs over from South America to Europe and it is possible that they stopped at Guiana on their journey, which may have led to people thinking this is where they came from. A nutritious diet of good quality hay, a varied supply of fresh veggies and fruit and small amounts of dry pellet food that is specially designed for guinea pigs should be enough to maintain a healthy intake of Vitamin C. Good sources of vitamin C for Guinea pigs are red and green bell peppers, Parsley, Broccoli and Curly Kale; although there are foods that have higher Vitamin C content than these, such as cabbage, spinach, beetroot greens, oranges, kiwis & grapefruit, these need to be fed sparingly due to high calcium content or acidity. Guinea pigs are ‘prey’ animals and are genetically programmed to always be on the lookout for and run away from danger, which can mean that it may take a little while for your guinea pig to learn to trust you. Hold out your hand and keep it still so that your guinea pig can choose whether or not to approach you or stay away – don’t force them to be stroked. Offer really tasty, small pieces of veg or fruit and hand feed your guinea pig so that he or she learns that your presence is a positive thing. Don’t pick your guinea pig up if you don’t have too, they are so much happier with all four paws on the ground! Instead sit on the floor and encourage your guinea pig onto your lap for strokes and cuddles using food. If you do need to pick up your guinea pig, always do it by placing one hand under the chest and use the other to support their hind quarters – always make sure you have a firm hold of your guinea pig while you are holding them, as falling from a height can injure them. Traditionally Guinea pigs have always been kept in hutches in the garden, however guinea pigs are just as happy when kept indoors. Fleece/Vetbed/Towels – commonly used for indoor guinea pigs This keeps guinea pigs dry and is soft on their feet also. Daily Health Care Bottom – Guinea pigs normally pass faecal pellets as well as the softer caecotrophs which they eat. Rodents with attitude – a very informative guinea pig site and forum.