Many diseases can be avoided by keepinga small number of pigs. In order to have healthy pigs, it is importantto know about the common diseases of pigs, so that you can prevent and treat them. Malnutrition is one of the most important problems of small pig herds. The pigs will appear thin and show poor growth The only bones that you should see are the shoulder blades, which should be covered by a layer of flesh so that you cannot actually feel them If the backbone, hip bones or ribs can be seen, the pig is too thin. Mange is one of the most important problems in small pig herds. It is caused by small parasites called mites that live in the skin The pig becomes itchy, and scratches and rubs against the walls of the sty and other objects The coat looks dull, and there are bare patches, heavy crusts, and lines on the body that look like ribs Treatment is with spray-on or pour-on preparations or injections that also treats worms If you have only a few pigs, you and your neighbours should buy the medicine together and treat the pigs at the same time Treat adult pigs regularly; you then do not have to treat piglets, as they will not be infected. Diamond skin disease was named this way because affected pigs develop large dark-red patches on the skin This disease can cause death It is treated with antibiotic injections You can vaccinate pigs to prevent the disease. Pork measles is caused by tapeworms which live in the muscles of pigs They do not usually affect the pig, but can lead to pain and the pig may find it difficult to move around When people eat undercooked measly pork, the worms develop inside the people, and can make them very sick These worms can be controlled by preventing the pigs from wandering about where they can feed on human faeces, and by making sure that people working with pigs use toilets Pigs cannot be treated for this disease. Pigs are heavy compared to the size of their feet and can easily hurt their feet if there are cracks in the floor or sharp surfaces Pigs can also develop arthritis fairly easily from damage or diseases They will not place weight on the sore leg Pigs that sit or lie and do not get up when food is given, are lame Examine the pig for sores and swellings If there are no obvious sores or swellings, get help from a veterinarian, because it may be best to slaughter the pig. Many serious diseases start with fever Pigs stop eating, lie around, may huddle together, and may become red or purple on the belly, legs and ears. In South Africa, pigs may get African swine fever in parts of the Northern, North West, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces where warthogs are infected. If pigs can drink as much water as they like, this is not a serious problem If the pigs cannot drink water, they can die of salt poisoning Pigs appear to be blind, fall over, and may vomit and have seizures resembling epileptic fits. You should get help from a veterinarian or animal health technician, because not all antibiotics are good for treating pneumonia If a pig dies from pneumonia and you open up the chest of the carcass, the lungs look solid and red, and there may be pus. Hygiene is important in preventing pig diseases Keep pigs in pens that are well drained and clean these every day Make sure that clean fresh drinking water is always available Clean feeding troughs and containers before putting in fresh feed Control flies by removing dung and covering it to make compost Store feed in a clean, dry, rat-proof place. If you know about the different diseases which pigs can get, you can either prevent or treat them in time and avoid pigs dying from disease.
Swine as Models in Biomedical Research and Toxicology TestingVeterinary Pathology
37,49,51 However, descriptions of macroscopic or microscopic background lesions in research pigs in the laboratory setting or toxicologic pathology descriptions in minipigs have been reported only rarely. The rationale for the use of pigs, and particularly minipigs, as an increasingly common alternative choice of nonrodent species in regulatory toxicology studies is discussed. Histologically, the pig has more prominent Purkinje cells and a more prominent vasa vasorum in the aortic wall than seen in the dog, monkey, or rat.9,51 Small foci of lymphocytes are occasionally noted within the myocardium of minipigs involved in toxicology studies, similar to those previously described in monkeys13,55 but much less commonly than is noted in rats with spontaneous cardiomyopathy. Fatty liver is a common finding in the streptozotocin diabetic pig model, as it is in other porcine models of hypertriglyceridemia. The location of the parathyroid glands is variable depending on the age of the pig, but they can generally be found in the first fascial plane medial to the thymus at its cranial end.51 It is often difficult to locate both parathyroid glands macroscopically, and therefore this tissue may be missing, at least unilaterally, in some toxicology studies, especially if the laboratory has limited experience with porcine tissue lists. 48 As mentioned earlier in this section, the pig’s cardiovascular system has general physiologic, anatomic, and histologic characteristics that make the pig a good model for biomedical research and toxicology testing. 21 These advances have largely resulted from using pig models, and consensus groups have recommended the pig as the preferred model for studying intravascular stents. The pig model is used in wound healing, plastic surgery techniques, reconstructive techniques, burn models, and artificial skin grafts. The pig has been more commonly used than either primates or dogs for various wound healing and reconstructive surgery given the more similar anatomy of the skin.47,51 They uses include skin surgery, melanoma research, wound healing, burn studies, microbiology, laser therapy, aseptic necrosis, vitiligo and depigmentation, dry skin, and studies of hypertrophic scarring. 26 Histopathologically, the tumors in pigs and humans are similar, and although these pigs develop a range of pigmented tumors from benign junctional nevi to metastatic malignant melanoma, there are numerous differences between the tumors in pigs and the tumors in humans. Pigs were chosen for preclinical studies because the subcutaneous tissue from the dorsal back area of the pig is very similar to human breast tissue. In the literature, the use of pigs in neurosciences is the most rapidly increasing area of research for this species. ChooseTop of pageAbstractBreed SelectionAnatomic and Histopatholo…Surgical Models and Proce…Minipigs as Toxicologic M… <<ConclusionReferencesCITING ARTICLES. From the foregoing, it is clear that the pig and minipig represent good models for humans in many ways. 7 In the field of food safety, pigs are used throughout the discovery and regulatory process given the similar omnivorous eating patterns of pigs and humans and the previously mentioned similarities in the digestive tract. Harig, F, Hoyer, E, Labahn, D, Schmidt, J, Weyand, M, Ensminger, SM. Refinement of pig retroperfusion technique: global retroperfusion with ligation of the azygos connection preserves hemodynamic function in an acute infarction model in pigs.