We Pigs News for 08-17-2018
In pigs infected with HRV at PTD10, there was a uniform decrease in the function and/or frequencies of natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD103+ and apoptotic mononuclear cells and altered gene expression profiles of intestinal epithelial cells. In pilot experiments, to evaluate the effects of protein malnutrition on immune function and enteric infection, we infected pigs with HRV at 3 and 10 days after HIFM transplantation to evaluate protein malnutrition/HRV infection effects in the context of developing and established intestinal microbiomes, respectively. The neonatal pigs infected with HRV at 3 days after HIFM transplantation had poor health, high mortality rates, and enhanced HRV shedding/diarrhea, unlike pigs infected at 10 days after HIFM transplantation or germfree pigs. The GF pigs on the protein-deficient diet became stunted compared to their sufficient-diet counterparts; however, stunting and edema were less evident in GF pigs than in HIFM-transplanted protein-deficient pigs. Protein deficiency differentially affects SOX9, CgA, MUC2, villin, and PCNA gene mRNA levels of IECs.SOX9, MUC2, villin, PCNA, and CgA gene mRNA levels were lower in jejunal IECs of protein-deficient pigs than in those of sufficient HIFM/HRV-infected pigs, as demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.
However, only MUC2 and villin mRNA levels were lower in protein-deficient pigs than in protein-sufficient non-HRV-inoculated pigs, while CgA, PCNA, and SOX9 mRNA levels were higher. Protein deficiency decreased the frequencies of natural killer cells among intestinal and splenic mononuclear cells and significantly decreased the NK function of splenic MNCs. Similarly, frequencies of intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CD103+ MNCs were significantly lower in protein-deficient pigs than in protein-sufficient pigs. Stunting of the pigs on the deficient diet that were transplanted with sHIFM or dHIFM was indistinguishable from that of pigs transplanted with dHIFM. Likewise sHIFM failed to rescue pigs on a deficient diet from stunting.
Because protein-deficient HIFM-transplanted pigs with or without HRV were more stunted than protein-deficient GF pigs infected with HRV, we conclude that the altered microbiota and not HRV infection alone plays a major role in the development of stunting in protein deficiency. Finally, our observations suggest that the intestinal microbiota enhances epithelial proliferation and IEC barrier function, which is evident from the higher PCNA and villin mRNA levels in HIFM-transplanted pigs than in GF pigs. In the early 1990s there were just 198 Mangalica pigs left and a Hungarian animal geneticist became alarmed. There are even a few specialized farmers raising Mangalica pigs in the United States today. Eating MangalicaThe Mangalica is one of the fattiest pigs in the world; on average 65-70% of the carcass is fat, and lean meat is only 30 – 35% of the carcass, compared to over 50% in modern breeds.
Qualification is granted on the basis of one complete herd test of all breeding animals, six months of age and older, plus a number of progeny equal to 20% of the breeding swine population of the herd and finding all swine negative. Maintaining Qualified Pseudorabies – Negative Herd Status Qualification may be maintained by testing 20% of the swine over six months of age or older and a number of offspring equal to 6% of the breeding animals in the herd every 80-105 days and finding all swine negative. Qualification may be maintained by testing 7% of the swine over six months of age and older and a number of the offspring equal to 2% of the breeding animals in the herd every 25-35 days and finding all swine negative. Movement of breeding swine from a non-QN herd must be negative to an official pseudorabies serologic test not more than 30 days prior to movement. Swine intended to be added to a QN herd from another QN herd, but with interim contact with swine other than those from a QN herd, shall be isolated until they have been found negative to an official pseudorabies serologic test conducted 30 days or more after the swine have been placed in isolation.
Validation is granted on the basis of one complete herd test of all breeding animals six months of age and older and finding all swine negative. Validation may be maintained by testing 20% of the swine over six months of age and older and a number of the offspring equal to 6% of the breeding animals in the herd every 80-105 days and finding all swine to be tested negative. Validation may be maintained by testing 7% of the swine over six months of age or older and a number of offspring equal to 2% of the breeding animals in the herd every 25-35 days and finding all swine negative. Movement of Swine into Validated Herds Movement between validated-brucellosis free herds does not require an official brucellosis test. Movement of breeding swine from a non-validated brucellosis free herd requires one negative test within 30 days prior to movement.
Use of swine semen in swine brucellosis-free herds must come from boars in validated-brucellosis free herds. No one shall feed garbage to swine, except to their own swine and then on the garbage obtained from their own household, unless they have a permit from the Missouri Department of Agriculture.