Levamisole stimulates proliferation of circulating and intestinal immune cell subsets, gut health and performance in weaned pigs
Novel strategies to prevent/control such diseases include numerous biologic and synthetic preparations, which are capable of reducing the harmful effects of early weaning of pigs and protecting pigs against enteric infections, particularly CD/CE. With the growing knowledge of the porcine gut immune system and its endogenous modulation, particularly the development of both innate and adaptive immunity at the mucosal surfaces, which is critical in preventing the harmful effects of intestinal pathogens, it has been clearly stated that exogenous specific/nonspecific immunomodulation represents an important prophylactic/therapeutic approach in the prevention/treatment of both stress- and ETEC-induced infections accompanied weaning. Pigs weaned at less than 3 wk of age have lower lymphocyte proliferative responses than pigs weaned at an greater age and may have a reduced growth rate as a result of reduced immune protection. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of LEVA given as a single peroral dose to 4-wk-old weaned pigs on: the recruitment of circulating and intestinal immune cell subsets by assessing the proportions of CD45+ lymphoid cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD21+ B cells in the peripheral blood as well as the number of CD45RA+ naive lymphoid cells residing their ileal mucosa, the incidence/severity of diarrhea by clinical/bacteriological monitoring of their gut health, and productivity/performance parameters, such as body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 5 wk after the treatment. In this paperTop of pageMATERIALS AND METHODSRESULTSDISCUSSION Â«DISCUSSION. The results obtained on the effectiveness of LEVA used as an immunomodulator to: enhance proliferation of peripheral blood and intestinal immune cell subsets, maintain gut health, and improve productivity and performance of 4-wk-old weaned pigs based on the study during period of 5 wk postweaning were generally in agreement with many of our previous observations and by others. Based on these comparisons we have concluded that LEVA is shown in our study to be effective as an immunostimulating agent for recruitment of circulating and intestinal immune cell subsets tested, and thus, could be of importance in establishing the resistance of weaned pigs to enteric infections which resulted in the reduction of incidence/severity of postweaning diarrheal disease, prevention/control of losses due to enteric infections, maintenance of their gut health and more efficient productivity/performance parameters.
Institute for Responsible Technology
On May 19th, the American Academy of Environmental Medicine called on “Physicians to educate their patients, the medical community, and the public to avoid GM foods when possible and provide educational materials concerning GM foods and health risks.” They called for a moratorium on GM foods, long-term independent studies, and labeling. AAEM’s position paper stated, “Several animal studies indicate serious health risks associated with GM food,” including infertility, immune problems, accelerated aging, insulin regulation, and changes in major organs and the gastrointestinal system. Among the population, biologist David Schubert of the Salk Institute warns that “Children are the most likely to be adversely effected by toxins and other dietary problems” related to GM foods. AAEM states, “Multiple animal studies show significant immune dysregulation,” including increase in cytokines, which are “Associated with asthma, allergy, and inflammation”-all on the rise in the US. According to GM food safety expert Dr. Arpad Pusztai, changes in the immune status of GM animals are “a consistent feature of all the studies.” Even Monsanto’s own research showed significant immune system changes in rats fed Bt corn. People can stay away from anything with soy or corn derivatives, cottonseed and canola oil, and sugar from GM sugar beets-unless it says organic or “Non-GMO.” There is a pocket Non-GMO Shopping Guide, co-produced by the Institute for Responsible Technology and the Center for Food Safety, which is available as a download, as well as in natural food stores and in many doctors’ offices.
Pigs And Dogs – abfrh.us
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